For a complete introduction and to get to know each Fuddlebrook story/concept, work your way across the main menu bar above. Have fun exploring, and please contact us with any questions you may have!
But that's not all. Check out the introductory video that explains why we created the Fuddlebrook School Science Series.
Identify different parts of a leaf and make beautiful fall artwork, too, in this fun activity.
Have you ever wondered what happened to the water puddle that was in the road just yesterday? Where did it go? This process is called evaporation. Evaporation is part of the water cycle, along with condensation, precipitation, and collection.
Here’s an easy way to learn about the water cycle!
This year we move from summer to fall, Monday, September 23. And while, in our part of the world, it will probably take a few more weeks after the official start of the season for it to look and feel like autumn, we will eventually be rewarded with a spectacular show of fall color. But wait, maybe not. Why does this fall pageantry vary from year to year and tree to tree?
And, did you know yellow and orange colors have actually been there throughout the spring and summer, but we haven’t been able to see them? The deep green color of chlorophyll, which helps plants absorb life-giving sunlight, hides the other colors. In the fall, trees break down the green pigments and nutrients stored in the leaves. The nutrients are shuttled into the roots for reuse in the spring. As the leaves lose their chlorophyll, those other pigments become visible to the human eye. Some tree leaves will eventually turn mostly brown, indicating that all pigments are gone.
Burgundy and red colors are a different story. Says Dana A. Dudle, a DePauw professor of biology who researches red pigment in plant flowers, stems, and leaves,“The red color is actively made in leaves by bright light and cold. The crisp, cold nights in the fall combine with bright, sunny days to spur production of red in leaves – especially in sugar maple and red maple trees. Burgundy leaves often result from a combination of red pigment and chlorophyll. Autumn seasons with a lot of sunny days and cold nights will have the brightest colors.” And in some cases, about half of a tree’s leaves are red/orange and the other half green. Dudle says that results from environmental factors – such as only half the tree being exposed to sunlight or cold.
Climate isn’t the only factor though that impacts color. Some trees just naturally put on a better color show than others. Hardwoods in the Midwest and on the East Coast are famous for good color selections. Some of the more reliably colorful trees include Sugar and Red Maples, Sassafras, Aspen, Sweet Gum, Sourwood, and Black Tupelo, according to the Arbor Day Foundation.
So what is the colors’ purpose? Scientists think that with some trees, pigments serve as a kind of sunscreen to filter out sunlight. It may surprise you to know that plants, like humans, can’t take an infinite amount of Sun. Some leaves, if they get too much Sun, will get a “sunburn.”
Another theory is that the color of a plant’s leaves is often related to the ability to warn away pests or attract insect pollinators. One of the more intriguing scientific theories is that the beautiful leaf colors we see today are indicative of a relationship between a plant and insects that developed millions of years ago. However, as the Earth’s climate changed over the years, the insects might have gone extinct, but the plant was able to survive for whatever reason. Because the plants evolve very slowly, we still see the colors. So leaf color is a fossil memory, something that existed for a reason years ago but that serves no purpose now.
Whatever the reason for the change of color in the fall, take some time to enjoy it! Also read the Fuddlebrook stories, A Change of Season and Liza’s Liza’s Colorful Tale, where she takes in the glorious colors of the season, to learn more about the science of color. After you’ve finished reading, go on a nature walk to collect leaves from different trees and bushes. Watch our video as we identify different parts of a leaf and make beautiful fall artwork, too, in our activity, "Liza’s Leaf Rubbings.”
Let’s gush about something really important: H2O! And with good reason – without water, we’d be nothing. Just dust--literally. Water is one of the most common substances on Earth, and one of the most vital; it’s a tremendously valuable resource, yet one we squander and pollute.
Water is deceptive. While it pours freely from the skies and seems to flow endlessly in rivers, it’s a finite resource; we only have what we have. Watch our video that models this water cycle. And although there is about 332,500,000 cubic miles of it on Earth – only one-hundredth of one percent of the world's water is readily available for human use. We really need to learn how to show it some respect.
With that in mind, consider the following facts – some wondrous, some disconcerting, all eye-opening:
This new series marvelously succeeds in introducing young students to inquiry-based, experiential learning of scientific concepts that are age-appropriate. Moreover, students have the opportunity to explore story-based scientific concepts further through hands-on investigations.
--Teresa, Biology Ph.D; former elementary teacher, Springfield, MO
The thing I love most about the Fuddlebrook series is the connection aspect. Not only have the creators connected literacy and science, they have also provided opportunity for exploration of all areas of life. The dispositions and traits of the characters are consistent throughout the books and lead to discussions about friendship, bullying, loyalty, honesty, and humility. Fuddlebrook is "teaching the whole child by connecting to life."
--Carolyn, First Grade Teacher, Ozark, MO